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Reprod Toxicol. 2017 Aug;71:95-100. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2017.04.011. Epub 2017 May 4.

Association of reproductive disorders and male congenital anomalies with environmental exposure to endocrine active pesticides.

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Rafael Mendez Hospital, Lorca, Murcia (Spain) and University of Lorca, Spain. Electronic address:
University of Almería, Department of Neurosciences and Health Sciences, Almería, Spain.
University of Granada School of Medicine, Granada, Spain.
University of Almería, Department of Neurosciences and Health Sciences, Almería, Spain; Andalusian Council of Health at Almería Province, Almería, Spain.


There is growing evidence that environmental exposure to pesticides may increase the risk of developing reproductive and developmental disorders. This study determined the prevalence and risk of developing gestational disorders and male congenital genitourinary malformations in areas with distinct exposure to pesticides, many of them with potential endocrine disrupting properties. A population-based case-control study was carried out on pregnant women and male children living in ten health districts of Andalusia classified as areas of high and low environmental exposure to pesticides according to agronomic criteria. The study population included 45,050 cases and 950,620 controls matched for age and health district. Data were collected from computerized hospital records between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and risk of miscarriage, low birth weight, hypospadias, cryptorchidism and micropenis were significantly greater in areas with higher use of pesticides in relation to those with lower use, thus supporting and extending previous information.


Cryptorchidism; Endocrine disrupting chemicals; Hypospadias; Low birth weight; Micropenis; Miscarriage

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