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PLoS One. 2017 May 5;12(5):e0177291. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177291. eCollection 2017.

Smoking prevalence differs by location of residence among Ghanaians in Africa and Europe: The RODAM study.

Author information

1
Department of Non-communicable Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
2
Department of Public Health, Academic Medical Center-University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
3
Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
4
Department of Global Health, School of Public Health, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana.
5
Regional Institute for Population Studies, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana.
6
Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands.
7
Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
8
International Diabetes Federation, Africa Region, Kampala, Uganda.
9
Institute of Tropical Medicine and International Health, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
10
Department of Molecular Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Nuthetal, Germany.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Although the prevalence of smoking is low in Ghana, little is known about the effect of migration on smoking. Comparing Ghanaians living in their country of origin to those living in Europe offers an opportunity to investigate smoking by location of residence and the associations between smoking behaviours and migration-related factors.

METHODS:

Data on a relatively homogenous group of Ghanaians living in London (n = 949), Amsterdam (n = 1400), Berlin (n = 543), rural Ghana (n = 973) and urban Ghana (n = 1400) from the cross-sectional RODAM (Research on Obesity & Diabetes in African Migrants) study were used. Age-standardized prevalence rates of smoking by location of residence and factors associated with smoking among Ghanaian men were estimated using prevalence ratios (PR: 95% CIs).

RESULTS:

Current smoking was non-existent among women in rural and urban Ghana and London but was 3.2% and 3.3% in women in Amsterdam and Berlin, respectively. Smoking prevalence was higher in men in Europe (7.8%) than in both rural and urban Ghana (4.8%): PR 1.91: 95% CI 1.27, 2.88, adjusted for age, marital status, education and employment. Factors associated with a higher prevalence of smoking among Ghanaian men included European residence, being divorced or widowed, living alone, Islam religion, infrequent attendance at religious services, assimilation (cultural orientation), and low education.

CONCLUSION:

Ghanaians living in Europe are more likely to smoke than their counterparts in Ghana, suggesting convergence to European populations, although prevalence rates are still far below those in the host populations.

PMID:
28475620
PMCID:
PMC5419606
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0177291
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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