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Transl Oncogenomics. 2017 Feb 24;9:1177272716689818. doi: 10.1177/1177272716689818. eCollection 2017.

ARID1A Expression is Down-Regulated by Oxidative Stress in Endometriosis and Endometriosis-Associated Ovarian Cancer.

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Gynecologic Oncology Division, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Doctoral Biomedical Science Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
School of Life Sciences and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia.
Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.


Oxidative stress is considered an important factor in the development of endometriosis, including its malignant transformation. Previous studies have found that AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A), a tumor suppressor gene, is frequently mutated and inactivated in endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC), and such a change in this gene is considered an early event in malignant transformation. We observed oxidative stress status by measuring the activity of the antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and ARID1A gene expression in tissue samples from patients with endometriosis, EAOC, or non-endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (non-EAOC). We also induced oxidative stress in the cultured cells from patients with primary endometriosis by adding H2O2 and tested for any alteration of ARID1A gene expression based on different H2O2 concentrations. The results showed that MnSOD activity in endometriosis and EAOC was lower than in non-EAOC, but MDA levels were higher. This study also showed that oxidative stress reduced ARID1A gene expression.


ARID1A; endometriosis; malignant transformation; ovarian cancer; oxidative stress; tumor suppressor gene

Conflict of interest statement

DECLARATION OF CONFLICTING INTERESTS: The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. Disclosures and Ethics As a requirement of publication, author(s) have provided to the publisher signed confirmation of compliance with legal and ethical obligations including, but not limited to, the following: authorship and contributorship, conflicts of interest, privacy and confidentiality, and (where applicable) protection of human and animal research subjects. The authors have read and confirmed their agreement with the ICMJE authorship and conflict of interest criteria. The authors have also confirmed that this article is unique and not under consideration or published in any other publication, and that they have permission from rights holders to reproduce any copyrighted material. Any disclosures are made in this section. The external blind peer reviewers report no conflicts of interest.

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