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Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2017 Jun;15(3):142-152. doi: 10.1007/s11914-017-0355-2.

Hereditary Multiple Exostoses: New Insights into Pathogenesis, Clinical Complications, and Potential Treatments.

Author information

1
Translational Research Program in Pediatric Orthopaedics, Abramson Research Center, 902D, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA. pacificim@email.chop.edu.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is a complex musculoskeletal pediatric disorder characterized by osteochondromas that form next to the growth plates of many skeletal elements, including long bones, ribs, and vertebrae. Due to its intricacies and unresolved issues, HME continues to pose major challenges to both clinicians and biomedical researchers. The purpose of this review is to describe and analyze recent advances in this field and point to possible targets and strategies for future biologically based therapeutic intervention.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Most HME cases are linked to loss-of-function mutations in EXT1 or EXT2 that encode glycosyltransferases responsible for heparan sulfate (HS) synthesis, leading to HS deficiency. Recent genomic inquiries have extended those findings but have yet to provide a definitive genotype-phenotype correlation. Clinical studies emphasize that in addition to the well-known skeletal problems caused by osteochondromas, HME patients can experience, and suffer from, other symptoms and health complications such as chronic pain and nerve impingement. Laboratory work has produced novel insights into alterations in cellular and molecular mechanisms instigated by HS deficiency and subtending onset and growth of osteochondroma and how such changes could be targeted toward therapeutic ends. HME is a rare and orphan disease and, as such, is being studied only by a handful of clinical and basic investigators. Despite this limitation, significant advances have been made in the last few years, and the future bodes well for deciphering more thoroughly its pathogenesis and, in turn, identifying the most effective treatment for osteochondroma prevention.

KEYWORDS:

Drug treatment; EXT1; EXT2; Genotype-phenotype correlations; Heparan sulfate; Hereditary multiple exostoses; Multiple osteochondromas; Signaling proteins

PMID:
28466453
PMCID:
PMC5510481
DOI:
10.1007/s11914-017-0355-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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