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Curr Med Chem. 2018;25(1):5-21. doi: 10.2174/0929867324666170426095015.

Structure, Function, Involvement in Diseases and Targeting of 14-3-3 Proteins: An Update.

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Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Siena, Via A. Moro 2, Siena. Italy.


14-3-3 is a class of proteins able to interact with a multitude of targets by establishing protein-protein interactions (PPIs). They are usually found in all eukaryotes with a conserved secondary structure and high sequence homology among species. 14-3-3 proteins are involved in many physiological and pathological cellular processes either by triggering or interfering with the activity of specific protein partners. In the last years, the scientific community has collected many evidences on the role played by seven human 14-3-3 isoforms in cancer or neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, these proteins regulate the molecular mechanisms associated to these diseases by interacting with (i) oncogenic and (ii) pro-apoptotic proteins and (iii) with proteins involved in Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases. The discovery of small molecule modulators of 14-3-3 PPIs could facilitate complete understanding of the physiological role of these proteins, and might offer valuable therapeutic approaches for these critical pathological states.


14-3-3; cancer; drug discovery; neurodegeneration; phosphorylation; protein-protein interaction; small molecules

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