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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 May 16;114(20):5225-5230. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1620194114. Epub 2017 May 1.

Nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALTs) support the recall but not priming of influenza virus-specific cytotoxic T cells.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia.
2
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research and Department of Medical Biology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia.
3
WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia.
4
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia; wakiml@unimelb.edu.au.

Abstract

The lymphoid tissue that drains the upper respiratory tract represents an important induction site for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immunity to airborne pathogens and intranasal vaccines. Here, we investigated the role of the nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALTs), which are mucosal-associated lymphoid organs embedded in the submucosa of the nasal passage, in the initial priming and recall expansion of CD8+ T cells following an upper respiratory tract infection with a pathogenic influenza virus and immunization with a live attenuated influenza virus vaccine. Whereas NALTs served as the induction site for the recall expansion of memory CD8+ T cells following influenza virus infection or vaccination, they failed to support activation of naïve CD8+ T cells. Strikingly, NALTs, unlike other lymphoid tissues, were not routinely surveyed during the steady state by circulating T cells. The selective recruitment of memory T cells into these lymphoid structures occurred in response to infection-induced elevation of the chemokine CXCL10, which attracted CXCR3+ memory CD8+ T cells. These results have significant implications for intranasal vaccines, which deliver antigen to mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and aim to elicit protective CTL-mediated immunity.

KEYWORDS:

CD8 T-cell priming; influenza virus; nasal-associated lymphoid tissue; respiratory tract

PMID:
28461487
PMCID:
PMC5441821
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1620194114
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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