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Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2017 Jul;1864(7):1359-1369. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2017.04.017. Epub 2017 Apr 28.

Transdifferentiation and reprogramming: Overview of the processes, their similarities and differences.

Author information

1
Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland; Stem Cell Group, Nordic EMBL Partnership, Centre for Molecular Medicine Norway (NCMM), University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
2
Unit of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Medical Biochemistry & Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
3
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
4
Department of Surgery, Länssjukhuset Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
5
Department of Anatomy, School of Health Science in Katowice Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.
6
Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, 18 Medyków Street, 40-752 Katowice, Poland.
7
Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Science, College of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; Health Policy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
8
Institute of Nonferrous Metals, Gliwice, Poland.
9
Duke University, School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.
10
Małopolska Centre of Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7A str., 30-387 Krakow, Poland. Electronic address: bioappl@gmail.com.

Abstract

Reprogramming, or generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells (functionally similar to embryonic stem cells or ES cells) by the use of transcription factors (typically: Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, Klf4) called "Yamanaka factors" (OSKM), has revolutionized regenerative medicine. However, factors used to induce stemness are also overexpressed in cancer. Both, ES cells and iPS cells cause teratoma formation when injected to tissues. This raises a safety concern for therapies based on iPS derivates. Transdifferentiation (lineage reprogramming, or -conversion), is a process in which one mature, specialized cell type changes into another without entering a pluripotent state. This process involves an ectopic expression of transcription factors and/or other stimuli. Unlike in the case of reprogramming, tissues obtained by this method do not carry the risk of subsequent teratomagenesis.

KEYWORDS:

Reprogramming; Teratomagenesis; Transdifferentiation; Yamanaka factors; iPS

PMID:
28460880
DOI:
10.1016/j.bbamcr.2017.04.017
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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