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Lancet. 2017 Oct 28;390(10106):1981-1995. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31071-1. Epub 2017 Apr 28.

Heart failure.

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Institute of Cardiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences, and Public Health, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; Section of Cardiology, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:


Heart failure is common in adults, accounting for substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Its prevalence is increasing because of ageing of the population and improved treatment of acute cardiovascular events, despite the efficacy of many therapies for patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), β blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, and advanced device therapies. Combined angiotensin receptor blocker neprilysin inhibitors (ARNIs) have been associated with improvements in hospital admissions and mortality from heart failure compared with enalapril, and guidelines now recommend substitution of ACE inhibitors or ARBs with ARNIs in appropriate patients. Improved safety of left ventricular assist devices means that these are becoming more commonly used in patients with severe symptoms. Antidiabetic therapies might further improve outcomes in patients with heart failure. New drugs with novel mechanisms of action, such as cardiac myosin activators, are under investigation for patients with heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is a heterogeneous disorder that remains incompletely understood and will continue to increase in prevalence with the ageing population. Although some data suggest that spironolactone might improve outcomes in these patients, no therapy has conclusively shown a significant effect. Hopefully, future studies will address these unmet needs for patients with heart failure. Admissions for acute heart failure continue to increase but, to date, no new therapies have improved clinical outcomes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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