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Epidemiol Rev. 2017 Jan 1;39(1):1-10. doi: 10.1093/epirev/mxx009.

Reducing Cancer Burden in the Population: An Overview of Epidemiologic Evidence to Support Policies, Systems, and Environmental Changes.

Abstract

"Reducing Cancer Burden in the Population: Epidemiologic Evidence to Support Policies, Systems, and Environmental Changes" is a compilation of 11 reviews addressing aspects of primary prevention of cancer (early life factors, vitamin D, and periodontal disease and the oral microbiome); primary and secondary prevention (in the transgender population); surveillance following secondary prevention (personalizing follow-up of patients diagnosed with an adenoma based on colorectal cancer risk); tertiary prevention (physical activity as an adjuvant to cancer treatment, measurement of patient-reported physical functioning in cancer treatment trials, and implementation of palliative care recommendations); and all 3 (changing epidemiology of oral cancers). Authors discuss policies, systems, and environment (PSE) changes that may be supported by epidemiologic evidence, for example, how existing public health and clinical policies and guidelines targeting noncancer outcomes may indirectly reduce cancer burden and how some cancer control policies could be refined to enhance effectiveness. Authors also discuss where systems and environment changes are necessary to ensure routine implementation of up-to-date, evidence-based policies and guidelines. Two other articles discuss infrastructure to support identification of existing and emerging cancer problems that could be reduced or avoided, including by PSE changes. These frameworks may guide impactful cancer research relevant to cancer centers' catchment areas, as well as cancer control efforts in countries where noncommunicable diseases including cancer are on the rise. The weight of the evidence of these reviews supports opportunities for PSE changes and infrastructure that could reduce the cancer burden in populations.

KEYWORDS:

cancer; policy, systems, and environment changes; primary prevention; secondary prevention; tertiary prevention

PMID:
28460082
PMCID:
PMC5868280
DOI:
10.1093/epirev/mxx009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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