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Environ Pollut. 2017 Aug;227:98-115. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.04.032. Epub 2017 Apr 28.

Effects and mechanisms of biochar-microbe interactions in soil improvement and pollution remediation: A review.

Author information

1
Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address: zhuxm@zju.edu.cn.
2
Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address: blchen@zju.edu.cn.
3
Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address: zlz@zju.edu.cn.
4
Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, United States. Electronic address: bx@umass.edu.

Abstract

Biochars have attracted tremendous attention due to their effects on soil improvement; they enhance carbon storage, soil fertility and quality, and contaminant (organic and heavy metal) immobilization and transformation. These effects could be achieved by modifying soil microbial habitats and (or) directly influencing microbial metabolisms, which together induce changes in microbial activity and microbial community structures. This review links microbial responses, including microbial activity, community structures and soil enzyme activities, with changes in soil properties caused by biochars. In particular, we summarized possible mechanisms that are involved in the effects that biochar-microbe interactions have on soil carbon sequestration and pollution remediation. Special attention has been paid to biochar effects on the formation and protection of soil aggregates, biochar adsorption of contaminants, biochar-mediated transformation of soil contaminants by microorganisms, and biochar-facilitated electron transfer between microbial cells and contaminants and soil organic matter. Certain reactive organic compounds and heavy metals in biochar may induce toxicity to soil microorganisms. Adsorption and hydrolysis of signaling molecules by biochar interrupts microbial interspecific communications, potentially altering soil microbial community structures. Further research is urged to verify the proposed mechanisms involved in biochar-microbiota interactions for soil remediation and improvement.

KEYWORDS:

Biochar amendment; Carbon sequestration; Contaminant mitigation; Interaction mechanisms; Microbial community; Soil improvement

PMID:
28458251
DOI:
10.1016/j.envpol.2017.04.032
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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