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Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2017 Jul;220(5):869-879. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.04.002. Epub 2017 Apr 22.

Exposure sources and their relative contributions to urinary phthalate metabolites among children in Taiwan.

Author information

1
Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan. Electronic address: ccchen@nhri.org.tw.
2
Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan.
3
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan; Research Center for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.
4
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan; Research Center for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
5
Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan; Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
6
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Research Center for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
7
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan.
8
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substance, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
9
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Research Center for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Family Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
10
Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.
11
Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan. Electronic address: hsiung@nhri.org.tw.

Abstract

Phthalate exposure is omnipresent and known to have developmental and reproductive effects in children. The aim of this study was to determine the phthalate exposure sources and their relative contributions among children in Taiwan. During the first wave of the Risk Assessment of Phthalate Incident in Taiwan (RAPIT), in 2012, we measured 8 urinary phthalate metabolites in 226 children aged 1-11 years old and in 181 children from the same cohort for the wave 2 study in 2014. A two-stage statistical analysis approach was adopted. First, a stepwise regression model was used to screen 80 questions that explored the exposure frequency and lifestyle for potential associations. Second, the remaining questions with positive regression coefficients were grouped into the following 6 exposure categories: plastic container/packaging, food, indoor environment, personal care products, toys, and eating out. A mixed model was then applied to assess the relative contributions of these categories for each metabolite. The use of plastic container or food packaging were dominant exposure sources for mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP), and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP). The indoor environment was a major exposure source of mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP). The consumption of seafood showed a significant correlation with MEHP. The children's modified dietary behavior and improved living environment in the second study wave were associated with lower phthalate metabolite levels, showing that phthalate exposures can be effectively reduced.

KEYWORDS:

Indoor environment; Lifestyle behavior; Mixed model; Plastic container or packaging; RAPIT

PMID:
28457892
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.04.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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