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Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2017 Dec;146:118-128. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.04.025. Epub 2017 Apr 28.

Toxicological and thermoregulatory effects of feather contamination with artificially weathered MC 252 oil in western sandpipers (Calidris mauri).

Author information

1
Advanced Facility for Avian Research, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada N6G 1G9; Konrad-Lorenz Institute of Ethology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Savoyenstrasse 1a, 1160 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address: ivan.maggini@vetmeduni.ac.at.
2
Advanced Facility for Avian Research, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada N6G 1G9. Electronic address: lisakennedy@trentu.ca.
3
Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, 474 South Shaw Lane, East Lansing, MI 48824, United States. Electronic address: bursian@msu.edu.
4
Abt Associates, 1881 Ninth St., Ste 201, Boulder, CO 80302-5148, United States. Electronic address: Karen_Dean@abtassoc.com.
5
Advanced Facility for Avian Research, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada N6G 1G9. Electronic address: Argerson@bio.umass.edu.
6
Urika, LLC, Mukilteo, WA 98275, United States. Electronic address: drharr@urikapathology.com.
7
Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, 474 South Shaw Lane, East Lansing, MI 48824, United States. Electronic address: linkj@msu.edu.
8
University of Nevada-Reno, Max Fleischmann Agriculture Bldg. 210, Reno, NV 89557, United States. Electronic address: pritsos@cabnr.unr.edu.
9
University of Nevada-Reno, Max Fleischmann Agriculture Bldg. 210, Reno, NV 89557, United States.
10
Advanced Facility for Avian Research, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada N6G 1G9. Electronic address: cguglie2@uwo.ca.

Abstract

The external contamination of bird feathers with crude oil might have effects on feather structure and thus on thermoregulation. We tested the thermoregulatory ability of western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) in a respirometry chamber with oil applied either immediately prior, or three days before the experiment. The birds were then exposed to a sliding cold temperature challenge between 27°C and -3°C to calculate thermal conductance. After the experiment, a large blood sample was taken and the liver extracted to measure a range of parameters linked to toxicology and oxidative stress. No differences in thermal conductance were observed among groups, but birds exposed to oil for three days had reduced body temperatures and lost more body mass during that period. At necropsy, oiled birds showed a decrease in plasma albumin and sodium, and an increase in urea. This is reflective of dysfunction in the kidney at the loop of Henle. Birds, especially when exposed to the oil for three days, showed signs of oxidative stress and oxidative damage. These results show that the ingestion of externally applied oil through preening or drinking can cause toxic effects even in low doses, while we did not detect a direct effect of the external oil on thermoregulation over the temperature range tested.

KEYWORDS:

Anemia; Oxidative stress; Renal damage; Respirometry; Thermal conductance

PMID:
28457645
DOI:
10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.04.025
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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