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Clin Lab Med. 2017 Jun;37(2):317-340. doi: 10.1016/j.cll.2017.01.006. Epub 2017 Mar 25.

Tick-Borne Emerging Infections: Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis.

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Departments of Pathology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 3550 Terrace Street, Scaife Hall, Room 739, Pittsburgh, PA 15217, USA. Electronic address:
Department of Pathology, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Keiller 1.136, Galveston, TX 77555-0609, USA.


Human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are acute febrile tick-borne infectious diseases caused by various members from the genera Ehrlichia and Anaplasma. Ehrlichia chaffeensis is the major etiologic agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME), while Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the major cause of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). The clinical manifestations of HME and HGA ranges from subclinical to potentially life-threatening diseases associated with multi-organ failure. Macrophages and neutrophils are the major target cells for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma, respectively. The threat to public health is increasing with newly emerging ehrlichial and anaplasma agents, yet vaccines for human ehrlichioses and anaplasmosis are not available, and therapeutic options are limited. This article reviews recent advances in the understanding of HME and HGA.


Anaplasmosis; Diagnosis; Ehrlichiosis; Immunity; Pathogenesis

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