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J Chem Phys. 2017 Apr 28;146(16):164105. doi: 10.1063/1.4981521.

A new near-linear scaling, efficient and accurate, open-shell domain-based local pair natural orbital coupled cluster singles and doubles theory.

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Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Energiekonversion, Stiftstr. 34-36, D-45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany.
Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA.


The Coupled-Cluster expansion, truncated after single and double excitations (CCSD), provides accurate and reliable molecular electronic wave functions and energies for many molecular systems around their equilibrium geometries. However, the high computational cost, which is well-known to scale as O(N6) with system size N, has limited its practical application to small systems consisting of not more than approximately 20-30 atoms. To overcome these limitations, low-order scaling approximations to CCSD have been intensively investigated over the past few years. In our previous work, we have shown that by combining the pair natural orbital (PNO) approach and the concept of orbital domains it is possible to achieve fully linear scaling CC implementations (DLPNO-CCSD and DLPNO-CCSD(T)) that recover around 99.9% of the total correlation energy [C. Riplinger et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 024109 (2016)]. The production level implementations of the DLPNO-CCSD and DLPNO-CCSD(T) methods were shown to be applicable to realistic systems composed of a few hundred atoms in a routine, black-box fashion on relatively modest hardware. In 2011, a reduced-scaling CCSD approach for high-spin open-shell unrestricted Hartree-Fock reference wave functions was proposed (UHF-LPNO-CCSD) [A. Hansen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 135, 214102 (2011)]. After a few years of experience with this method, a few shortcomings of UHF-LPNO-CCSD were noticed that required a redesign of the method, which is the subject of this paper. To this end, we employ the high-spin open-shell variant of the N-electron valence perturbation theory formalism to define the initial guess wave function, and consequently also the open-shell PNOs. The new PNO ansatz properly converges to the closed-shell limit since all truncations and approximations have been made in strict analogy to the closed-shell case. Furthermore, given the fact that the formalism uses a single set of orbitals, only a single PNO integral transformation is necessary, which offers large computational savings. We show that, with the default PNO truncation parameters, approximately 99.9% of the total CCSD correlation energy is recovered for open-shell species, which is comparable to the performance of the method for closed-shells. UHF-DLPNO-CCSD shows a linear scaling behavior for closed-shell systems, while linear to quadratic scaling is obtained for open-shell systems. The largest systems we have considered contain more than 500 atoms and feature more than 10 000 basis functions with a triple-ζ quality basis set.


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