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Appl Environ Microbiol. 2017 Jun 16;83(13). pii: e00692-17. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00692-17. Print 2017 Jul 1.

Engineering Escherichia coli Nicotinic Acid Mononucleotide Adenylyltransferase for Fully Active Amidated NAD Biosynthesis.

Wang X1,2, Zhou YJ1, Wang L1, Liu W1, Liu Y1,2, Peng C1,2, Zhao ZK3,4.

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Division of Biotechnology, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, Dalian, People's Republic of China.
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
Division of Biotechnology, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, Dalian, People's Republic of China
State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, Dalian, People's Republic of China.


NAD and its reduced form NADH function as essential redox cofactors and have major roles in determining cellular metabolic features. NAD can be synthesized through the deamidated and amidated pathways, for which the key reaction involves adenylylation of nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), respectively. In Escherichia coli, NAD de novo biosynthesis depends on the protein NadD-catalyzed adenylylation of NaMN to nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD), followed by NAD synthase-catalyzed amidation. In this study, we engineered NadD to favor NMN for improved amidated pathway activity. We designed NadD mutant libraries, screened by a malic enzyme-coupled colorimetric assay, and identified two variants, 11B4 (Y84V/Y118D) and 16D8 (A86W/Y118N), with a high preference for NMN. Whereas in the presence of NMN both variants were capable of enabling the viability of cells of E. coli BW25113-derived NAD-auxotrophic strain YJE003, for which the last step of the deamidated pathway is blocked, the 16D8 expression strain could grow without exogenous NMN and accumulated a higher cellular NAD(H) level than BW25113 in the stationary phase. These mutants established fully active amidated NAD biosynthesis and offered a new opportunity to manipulate NAD metabolism for biocatalysis and metabolic engineering.IMPORTANCE Adenylylation of nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) and adenylylation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), respectively, are the key steps in the deamidated and amidated pathways for NAD biosynthesis. In most organisms, canonical NAD biosynthesis follows the deamidated pathway. Here we engineered Escherichia coli NaMN adenylyltransferase to favor NMN and expressed the mutant enzyme in an NAD-auxotrophic E. coli strain that has the last step of the deamidated pathway blocked. The engineered strain survived in M9 medium, which indicated the implementation of a functional amidated pathway for NAD biosynthesis. These results enrich our understanding of NAD biosynthesis and are valuable for manipulation of NAD homeostasis for metabolic engineering.


NAD biosynthesis; cofactor engineering; protein engineering

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