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Sci Total Environ. 2017 Nov 15;598:647-656. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.04.113. Epub 2017 Apr 25.

Agricultural expansion as risk to endangered wildlife: Pesticide exposure in wild chimpanzees and baboons displaying facial dysplasia.

Author information

1
UMR 7206 CNRS/MNHN/P7, Eco-anthropologie et ethnobiologie, Hommes, et Environnements, Museum national d'Histoire naturelle, Musée de l'Homme, 17 place du Trocadéro, 75016 Paris, France; Great Ape Conservation Project (GACP), Sebitoli Research Station, Kibale National Park, Fort Portal, Uganda. Electronic address: sabrina.krief@mnhn.fr.
2
VetAgroSup Campus Vétérinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, 69280 Marcy l'Etoile, France. Electronic address: philippe.berny@vetagro-sup.fr.
3
Department of Chemistry, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
4
UMR 7206 CNRS/MNHN/P7, Eco-anthropologie et ethnobiologie, Hommes, et Environnements, Museum national d'Histoire naturelle, Musée de l'Homme, 17 place du Trocadéro, 75016 Paris, France; Great Ape Conservation Project (GACP), Sebitoli Research Station, Kibale National Park, Fort Portal, Uganda.
5
UMR 7221, Evolution of Endocrine Regulations, Museum national d'Histoire naturelle, 57 rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris, France. Electronic address: Barbara.demeneix@mnhn.fr.
6
UMR 7221, Evolution of Endocrine Regulations, Museum national d'Histoire naturelle, 57 rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris, France. Electronic address: jean-baptiste.fini@mnhn.fr.
7
Department of Anthropology, and McGill School of Environment, 855 Sherbrooke Street West, McGill University, Montréal, Québec H3A 2T7, Canada; Wildlife Conservation Society, 2300 Southern Boulevard, Bronx, New York 10460, USA. Electronic address: colin.chapman@mcgill.ca.
8
Department of Biology, McGill University, 1205 Dr. Penfield Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1B1, Canada. Electronic address: lauren.chapman@mcgill.ca.
9
Uganda Wildlife Authority, Kampala, Uganda. Electronic address: Andrew.seguya@ugandawildlife.org.

Abstract

Prenatal exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors can affect development and induce irreversible abnormalities in both humans and wildlife. The northern part of Kibale National Park, a mid-altitude rainforest in western Uganda, is largely surrounded by industrial tea plantations and wildlife using this area (Sebitoli) must cope with proximity to human populations and their activities. The chimpanzees and baboons in this area raid crops (primarily maize) in neighboring gardens. Sixteen young individuals of the 66 chimpanzees monitored (25%) exhibit abnormalities including reduced nostrils, cleft lip, limb deformities, reproductive problems and hypopigmentation. Each pathology could have a congenital component, potentially exacerbated by environmental factors. In addition, at least six of 35 photographed baboons from a Sebitoli troop (17%) have similar severe nasal deformities. Our inquiries in villages and tea factories near Sebitoli revealed use of eight pesticides (glyphosate, cypermethrin, profenofos, mancozeb, metalaxyl, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos and 2,4-D amine). Chemical analysis of samples collected from 2014 to 2016 showed that mean levels of pesticides in fresh maize stems and seeds, soils, and river sediments in the vicinity of the chimpanzee territory exceed recommended limits. Notably, excess levels were found for total DDT and its metabolite pp'-DDE and for chlorpyrifos in fresh maize seeds and in fish from Sebitoli. Imidacloprid was detected in coated maize seeds planted at the edge the forest and in fish samples from the Sebitoli area, while no pesticides were detected in fish from central park areas. Since some of these pesticides are thyroid hormone disruptors, we postulate that excessive pesticide use in the Sebitoli area may contribute to facial dysplasia in chimpanzees and baboons through this endocrine pathway. Chimpanzees are considered as endangered by IUCN and besides their intrinsic value and status as closely related to humans, they have major economic value in Uganda via ecotourism. Identifying and limiting potential threats to their survival such be a conservation priority.

KEYWORDS:

Apes; Endocrine disruptors; Monkeys; Non-human primates; Pesticides; Uganda

PMID:
28454037
DOI:
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.04.113
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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