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World J Gastrointest Oncol. 2017 Apr 15;9(4):184-193. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v9.i4.184.

Helicobacter pylori recurrence after eradication in Latin America: Implications for gastric cancer prevention.

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Juan E Corral, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL 32224, United States.



To estimate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) recurrence rate in Latin America, a region with a significant H. pylori prevalence and gastric cancer burden.


PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, Cochrane databases and abstracts from relevant meetings were reviewed. Information collected included: Participants' characteristics, recruitment strategy, diagnostic modality, treatment arms, follow-up and recurrence rates. Recurrence was calculated using 100-patients-year rates, and data were pooled using a random effects model. The I2 statistic assessed between study heterogeneity. Meta-regression analyses evaluated for effect modifying variables.


Literature search yielded 163 articles. Twelve studies involving 4848 patients from 9 countries met inclusion criteria. Four hundred and thirty-two reinfections were recorded in 5487 person-years of follow-up. Pooled analysis showed a recurrence rate of 7.9 cases per 100 person-years (95%CI: 5.3-10.5). Meta-regression revealed that neither the antibiotic schema, a second antibiotic course, nor the diagnostic modality had an impact on the observed risk of recurrence. The recurrence rate in the first year after treatment, predominantly recrudescence, was 11.2 (6.1-16.4) per 100 patient years. Recurrence in subsequent years, was only 6.2 (3.8-8.7).


H. pylori recurrence rates in Latin America are significant, and with geographic variability, yet are acceptable based upon the current literature for consideration of large scale intervention trials. Further research in Latin America is warranted to evaluate the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and potential adverse outcomes of proposed eradication programs.


Gastric cancer; Helicobacter pylori; Hispanic; Latin America; Reinfection

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