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J Biol Chem. 2017 Jun 16;292(24):10220-10229. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M117.780536. Epub 2017 Apr 27.

Skeletal overgrowth-causing mutations mimic an allosterically activated conformation of guanylyl cyclase-B that is inhibited by 2,4,6,-trinitrophenyl ATP.

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From the Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics and.
From the Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics and
the Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455.


Activating mutations in the receptor for C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), guanylyl cyclase B (GC-B, also known as Npr2 or NPR-B), increase cellular cGMP and cause skeletal overgrowth, but how these mutations affect GTP catalysis is poorly understood. The A488P and R655C mutations were compared with the known mutation V883M. Neither mutation affected GC-B concentrations. The A488P mutation decreased the EC50 5-fold, increased Vmax 2.6-fold, and decreased the Km 13-fold, whereas the R655C mutation decreased the EC50 5-fold, increased the Vmax 2.1-fold, and decreased the Km 4.7-fold. Neither mutation affected maximum activity at saturating CNP concentrations. Activation by R655C did not require disulfide bond formation. Surprisingly, the A488P mutant only activated the receptor when it was phosphorylated. In contrast, the R655C mutation converted GC-B-7A from CNP-unresponsive to CNP-responsive. Interestingly, neither mutant was activated by ATP, and the Km and Hill coefficient of each mutant assayed in the absence of ATP were similar to those of wild-type GC-B assayed in the presence of ATP. Finally, 1 mm 2,4,6,-trinitrophenyl ATP inhibited all three mutants by as much as 80% but failed to inhibit WT-GC-B. We conclude that 1) the A488P and R655C missense mutations result in a GC-B conformation that mimics the allosterically activated conformation, 2) GC-B phosphorylation is required for CNP-dependent activation by the A488P mutation, 3) the R655C mutation abrogates the need for phosphorylation in receptor activation, and 4) an ATP analog selectively inhibits the GC-B mutants, indicating that a pharmacologic approach could reduce GC-B dependent human skeletal overgrowth.


c-type natriuretic peptide; cGMP; cell signaling; guanylate cyclase (guanylyl cyclase); natriuretic peptide; phosphorylation; protein phosphorylation; skeletal dysplasia

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