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Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Aug 15;65(4):619-625. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix380.

Comprehensive Ryan White Assistance and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clinical Outcomes: Retention in Care and Viral Suppression in a Medicaid Nonexpansion State.

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Virginia Department of Health, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia.
Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia



Knowledge gaps remain about how the Ryan White human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS Program (RW) contributes to health outcomes. We examined the association between different RW service classes and retention in care (RiC) or viral suppression (VS).


We identified Virginians engaged in any HIV care between 1 January and 31 December 2014. RW beneficiaries were classified by receipt of ≥1 service from 3 classes: Core medical, Support, and insurance and/or direct medication assistance through the AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP). Receipt of all RW classes was defined as comprehensive assistance. We used multivariable logistic regression to compare the odds of RiC and of VS by comprehensive assistance and by RW classes alone and in combination.


Among 13104 individuals, 58% received any RW service and 17% comprehensive assistance. Comprehensive assistance is significantly associated with RiC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 8.8 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 7.2-10.8]) and viral suppression (aOR, 3.3 [95% CI, 2.9-3.8]). Receiving any 2 RW classes or Core alone is significantly associated with RiC and VS, with the strength of association decreasing as the number of classes decreases. Recipients of Support alone are significantly less likely to have VS (aOR, 0.75 [95% CI, .59-.96]). For ADAP recipients also receiving Core and/or Support, insurance assistance is significantly associated with VS compared to receiving direct medication only (aOR, 1.6 [95% CI, 1.3-1.9]); this relationship is not significant for those who receive ADAP alone.


Receiving more classes of RW-funded services is associated with improved HIV outcomes. For some populations with insurance, RW-funded services may still be required for optimal health outcomes.


HIV/AIDS; Ryan White; care delivery; team care

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