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Sci Rep. 2016 Dec 5;6(1):9. doi: 10.1038/s41598-016-0002-7.

Nitric Oxide (NO) Mediates the Inhibition of Form-Deprivation Myopia by Atropine in Chicks.

Author information

1
Neuroscience Graduate Program, Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
2
Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy and Department of Surgery; Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. wstell@ucalgary.ca.

Abstract

Myopia is the most common childhood refractive disorder. Atropine inhibits myopia progression, but its mechanism is unknown. Here, we show that myopia-prevention by atropine requires production of nitric oxide (NO). Form-deprivation myopia (FDM) was induced in week-old chicks by diffusers over the right eye (OD); the left eye (OS) remained ungoggled. On post-goggling days 1, 3, and 5, OD received intravitreally 20 µL of phosphate-buffered saline (vehicle), or vehicle plus: NO source: L-arginine (L-Arg, 60-6,000 nmol) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 10-1,000 nmol); atropine (240 nmol); NO inhibitors: L-NIO or L-NMMA (6 nmol); negative controls: D-Arg (10 µmol) or D-NMMA (6 nmol); or atropine plus L-NIO, L-NMMA, or D-NMMA; OS received vehicle. On day 6 post-goggling, refractive error, axial length, equatorial diameter, and wet weight were measured. Vehicle-injected goggled eyes developed significant FDM. This was inhibited by L-Arg (ED50 = 400 nmol) or SNP (ED50 = 20 nmol), but not D-Arg. Higher-dose SNP, but not L-Arg, was toxic to retina/RPE. Atropine inhibited FDM as expected; adding NOS-inhibitors (L-NIO, L-NMMA) to atropine inhibited this effect dose-dependently, but adding D-NMMA did not. Equatorial diameter, wet weight, and metrics of control eyes were not affected by any treatment. In summary, intraocular NO inhibits myopia dose-dependently and is obligatory for inhibition of myopia by atropine.

PMID:
28442706
PMCID:
PMC5431363
DOI:
10.1038/s41598-016-0002-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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