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Molecules. 2017 Apr 25;22(5). pii: E679. doi: 10.3390/molecules22050679.

Immune-Stimulatory Effects of Althaea rosea Flower Extracts through the MAPK Signaling Pathway in RAW264.7 Cells.

Author information

1
Department of Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk 27478, Korea. kimyonsuk@kku.ac.kr.
2
Nokyong Research Center, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk 27478, Korea. kimyonsuk@kku.ac.kr.
3
Division of Food and Bio Science, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea. eunkyungkim@kku.ac.kr.
4
Department of Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk 27478, Korea. amilasrilal@gmail.com.
5
Department of Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk 27478, Korea. 0527dongxin@gmail.com.
6
Department of Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk 27478, Korea. shinwoenbin@naver.com.
7
Department of Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk 27478, Korea. pdjmh043@hanmail.net.
8
Nokyong Research Center, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk 27478, Korea. moon0204@kku.ac.kr.
9
Department of Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk 27478, Korea. parkpj@kku.ac.kr.
10
Nokyong Research Center, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk 27478, Korea. parkpj@kku.ac.kr.

Abstract

Althaea rosea (Linn.) is a medicinal plant from China and Korea that has been traditionally used to control inflammation, to stop bedwetting and as a mouthwash in cases of bleeding gums. Its flowers are employed medicinally for their emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties, which make them useful in chest complaints. Furthermore, a flower extract decoction is used to improve blood circulation, for the treatment of constipation, dysmenorrhoea, haemorrhages, etc. However, the possible mechanisms of the immune-stimulatory effect remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the role of Althaea rosea flower (ARF) extracts in the immune-stimulatory effect of macrophages and the underlying mechanisms of action. ARF water extract (ARFW) could dose-dependently increase NO production and cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α). We also found that ARFW significantly increased the expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins in RAW264.7 cells. Consistent with these results, MAPK protein (JNK, ERK, p38) expression levels were induced after treatment with ARFW. Additionally, ARFW showed a marked increase in the phosphorylation level of IκBα and subsequent IκBα degradation allowing NF-κB nuclear translocation. These results suggest that the immune-stimulatory effect of A. rosea flower extracts is mediated through the translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit into the nucleus from the cytoplasm and subsequent activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) and other mediators (iNOS and COX-2), which occurs mainly through MAPK signalling pathway. Thus, we suggest that ARFW could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent useful in the development of immune-stimulatory compounds.

KEYWORDS:

Althaea rosea; RAW264.7 cells; immune-stimulatory effect

PMID:
28441343
PMCID:
PMC6154003
DOI:
10.3390/molecules22050679
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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