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Clin Linguist Phon. 2017;31(11-12):893-909. doi: 10.1080/02699206.2017.1308016. Epub 2017 Apr 25.

The vocabulary profile of Slovak children with primary language impairment compared to typically developing Slovak children measured by LITMUS-CLT.

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a Department of Communication Disorders , Institute of Psychology and Speech Therapy Studies, Faculty of Education, Comenius University , Bratislava , Slovakia.
b Department of Slovak Language , Institute of Slovak and Media Studies, Faculty of Arts, The University of Prešov , Prešov , Slovakia.


This study compared a sample of children with primary language impairment (PLI) and typically developing age-matched children using the crosslinguistic lexical tasks (CLT-SK). We also compared the PLI children with typically developing language-matched younger children who were matched on the basis of receptive vocabulary. Overall, statistical testing showed that the vocabulary of the PLI children was significantly different from the vocabulary of the age-matched children, but not statistically different from the younger children who were matched on the basis of their receptive vocabulary size. Qualitative analysis of the correct answers revealed that the PLI children showed higher rigidity compared to the younger language-matched children who are able to use more synonyms or derivations across word class in naming tasks. Similarly, an examination of the children's naming errors indicated that the language-matched children exhibited more semantic errors, whereas PLI children showed more associative errors.


CLT-SK; naming errors; primary language impairment (PLI); vocabulary

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