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Am J Epidemiol. 1988 Sep;128(3):615-28.

Serologic response to oral polio vaccine and enhanced-potency inactivated polio vaccines.

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Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD.


In a randomized, controlled trial carried out from November 1980 to July 1983 involving 1,114 infants in Baltimore City and in Baltimore and Prince George's counties, Maryland, the serologic response to three doses of two enhanced-potency inactivated polio vaccines was compared with the response to three doses of oral polio vaccine. The mean ages at vaccination were 2.2, 4.7, and 19.9 months, respectively, for the three doses. Seroconversion after the first dose varied from 35% to 84%, and it was higher after oral polio vaccine than after either of the enhanced-potency inactivated polio vaccines for polioviruses types 2 and 3. Approximately two and one-half and 16 months after the second dose, almost all inactivated polio vaccine recipients had antibodies against all three virus types (98-100%). Fewer oral polio vaccine recipients had detectable antibodies to type 1 (89-92%) and to type 3 (96%). After three doses of vaccine, all children had antibodies against types 2 and 3. Approximately 1% of the inactivated polio vaccine recipients and 3% of the oral polio vaccine recipients lacked antibody to type 1. One or two doses of oral polio vaccine stimulated higher reciprocal geometric mean antibody titers against type 2 poliovirus than did the inactivated polio vaccine. For the other two types, the results were mixed. The third dose of inactivated polio vaccine produced significant increases in the reciprocal geometric mean titers against each of the three poliovirus types and resulted in significantly higher reciprocal geometric mean titers after three doses of vaccine for recipients of inactivated polio vaccine than for recipients of oral polio vaccine.

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