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Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2017 May;26(3):514-523. doi: 10.6133/apjcn.042016.03.

Relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome and its disorders in Korean women according to menopausal status.

Hong SA1,2, Kim MK3,2.

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ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.
Institute for Health and Society, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Email:



The association between fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been elucidated fully, particularly by menopausal status. Method and Study Design: The study population was 2,999 women aged 40-64 years participating in the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The definition of MetS and its components was based on the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) for Koreans. Dietary data were assessed by a 24-hour recall.


Fruit intake was inversely related only to the risk of high blood pressure (BP), but not MetS. Total vegetable consumption was inversely associated with the MetS risk, and when combined with fruits, the inverse association was observed even in its features of high triglycerides (TG) and low HDLcholesterol as well as MetS. Assessing women by menopausal status revealed that the inverse association with the MetS risk was found only in postmenopausal women having greater total vegetables and total FV intake (aOR=0.47, 95% CI=0.29-0.75, p-trend=0.003 and aOR=0.54, 95% CI=0.35-0.85, p-trend=0.007, respectively). Analysis regarding MetS features showed that while the inverse association of total vegetables or total FV intake was observed with high TG risk in postmenopausal women, fruits intake was inversely associated with high BP risk in premenopausal women (aOR=0.54, 95% CI=0.37-0.79, p-trend=0.004).


Results suggest that while fruit intake was inversely associated with high BP in premenopausal women, greater dietary intake of vegetables and total FV may protect against the risk of MetS, particularly in postmenopausal women.

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