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Nat Commun. 2017 Apr 21;8:15087. doi: 10.1038/ncomms15087.

Noumeavirus replication relies on a transient remote control of the host nucleus.

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Aix-Marseille University, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Information Génomique &Structurale, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7256 (Institut de Microbiologie de la Méditerranée, FR3479), 13288 Marseille Cedex 9, France.
Université Grenoble Alpes, BIG-BGE, F-38000 Grenoble, France.
Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, BIG-BGE, F-38000 Grenoble, France.
INSERM, BGE, F-38000 Grenoble, France.
Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Marseille, 13385 Marseille, France.


Acanthamoeba are infected by a remarkable diversity of large dsDNA viruses, the infectious cycles of which have been characterized using genomics, transcriptomics and electron microscopy. Given their gene content and the persistence of the host nucleus throughout their infectious cycle, the Marseilleviridae were initially assumed to fully replicate in the cytoplasm. Unexpectedly, we find that their virions do not incorporate the virus-encoded transcription machinery, making their replication nucleus-dependent. However, instead of delivering their DNA to the nucleus, the Marseilleviridae initiate their replication by transiently recruiting the nuclear transcription machinery to their cytoplasmic viral factory. The nucleus recovers its integrity after becoming leaky at an early stage. This work highlights the importance of virion proteomic analyses to complement genome sequencing in the elucidation of the replication scheme and evolution of large dsDNA viruses.

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