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Sci Rep. 2017 Apr 19;7(1):923. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-01038-2.

The Chemical Characterization of Nigerian Propolis samples and Their Activity Against Trypanosoma brucei.

Author information

1
University of Strathclyde, Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Science, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow, G4 0RE, UK.
2
Phytochemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria.
3
Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Switchback Road, Glasgow, G61 1QH, UK.
4
Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8TA, UK.
5
BeeVital, Whitby, North Yorkshire, YO22 5JR, UK.
6
Department of Pharmacy, Health and Well-being, University of Sunderland, Wharncliffe Street, Sunderland, SR1 3SD, UK.
7
University of Strathclyde, Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Science, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow, G4 0RE, UK. d.g.watson@strath.ac.uk.

Abstract

Profiling of extracts from twelve propolis samples collected from eight regions in Nigeria was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with evaporative light scattering (ELSD), ultraviolet detection (UV) and mass spectrometry (MS), gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the processed LC-MS data demonstrated the varying chemical composition of the samples. Most of the samples were active against Trypanosoma b. brucei with the highest activity being in the samples from Southern Nigeria. The more active samples were fractionated in order to isolate the component(s) responsible for their activity using medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC). Three xanthones, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2,8-di-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-4,8-di-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone a previously undescribed xanthone and three triterpenes: ambonic acid, mangiferonic acid and a mixture of α-amyrin with mangiferonic acid (1:3) were isolated and characterised by NMR and LC-MS. These compounds all displayed strong inhibitory activity against T.b. brucei but none of them had higher activity than the crude extracts. Partial least squares (PLS) modelling of the anti-trypanosomal activity of the sample extracts using the LC-MS data indicated that high activity in the extracts, as judged from LCMS2 data, could be correlated to denticulatain isomers in the extracts.

PMID:
28424496
PMCID:
PMC5430459
DOI:
10.1038/s41598-017-01038-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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