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J Virol. 2017 Jun 9;91(13). pii: e00546-17. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00546-17. Print 2017 Jul 1.

Disruption of MDA5-Mediated Innate Immune Responses by the 3C Proteins of Coxsackievirus A16, Coxsackievirus A6, and Enterovirus D68.

Author information

1
First Hospital of Jilin University, Institute of Virology and AIDS Research, Changchun, Jilin Province, China.
2
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
3
School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province, China.
4
Cancer Institute (Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Intervention, China National Ministry of Education), The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.
5
First Hospital of Jilin University, Institute of Virology and AIDS Research, Changchun, Jilin Province, China zhangwenyan@jlu.edu.cn xyu2@jhu.edu.

Abstract

Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), CV-A6, and enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) belong to the Picornaviridae family and are major causes of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and pediatric respiratory disease worldwide. The biological characteristics of these viruses, especially their interplay with the host innate immune system, have not been well investigated. In this study, we discovered that the 3Cpro proteins from CV-A16, CV-A6, and EV-D68 bind melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) and inhibit its interaction with MAVS. Consequently, MDA5-triggered type I interferon (IFN) signaling in the retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptor (RLR) pathway was blocked by the CV-A16, CV-A6, and EV-D68 3Cpro proteins. Furthermore, the CV-A16, CV-A6, and EV-D68 3Cpro proteins all cleave transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), resulting in the inhibition of NF-κB activation, a host response also critical for Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated signaling. Thus, our data demonstrate that circulating HFMD-associated CV-A16 and CV-A6, as well as severe respiratory disease-associated EV-D68, have developed novel mechanisms to subvert host innate immune responses by targeting key factors in the RLR and TLR pathways. Blocking the ability of 3Cpro proteins from diverse enteroviruses and coxsackieviruses to interfere with type I IFN induction should restore IFN antiviral function, offering a potential novel antiviral strategy.IMPORTANCE CV-A16, CV-A6, and EV-D68 are emerging pathogens associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease and pediatric respiratory disease worldwide. The pathogenic mechanisms of these viruses are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the CV-A16, CV-A6, and EV-D68 3Cpro proteins block MDA5-triggered type I IFN induction. The 3Cpro proteins of these viruses bind MDA5 and inhibit its interaction with MAVS. In addition, the CV-A16, CV-A6, and EV-D68 3Cpro proteins cleave TAK1 to inhibit the NF-κB response. Thus, our data demonstrate that circulating HFMD-associated CV-A16 and CV-A6, as well as severe respiratory disease-associated EV-D68, have developed a mechanism to subvert host innate immune responses by simultaneously targeting key factors in the RLR and TLR pathways. These findings indicate the potential merit of targeting the CV-A16, CV-A6, and EV-D68 3Cpro proteins as an antiviral strategy.

KEYWORDS:

3C protease; CV-A16; CV-A6; EV-D68; HFMD; MAVS; MDA5; TAK1; innate immune response

PMID:
28424289
PMCID:
PMC5469270
DOI:
10.1128/JVI.00546-17
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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