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J Pathol. 2017 Aug;242(4):391-399. doi: 10.1002/path.4909. Epub 2017 May 25.

Epstein-Barr virus infection induces genome-wide de novo DNA methylation in non-neoplastic gastric epithelial cells.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
2
Department of Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
3
Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
4
Genome Science Division, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Abstract

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive gastric cancer (GC) shows a higher DNA methylation epigenotype. EBV infection can causally induce genome-wide aberrant DNA methylation, as previously demonstrated by in vitro infection experiments in the low-methylation GC cell line MKN7. However, whether EBV exerts DNA methylation remodelling properties in non-neoplastic epithelial cells remains unclear. Here we performed post-infection time-series DNA methylation analyses using the immortalized normal gastric epithelial cell line GES1. Genome-wide analysis using Illumina's Infinium 450 k BeadArray demonstrated global de novo DNA methylation from post-infection day 17, which was completed by 28 days in a manner similar to that observed in MKN7 cells. De novo methylation of all types of GC-specific methylation marker genes was observed, indicating that EBV infection is sufficient for gastric epithelial cells to acquire an EBV-positive GC epigenotype. Pyrosequencing demonstrated that methylation of the viral genome preceded that of the host cellular genome, suggesting the existence of well-ordered mechanisms that induce methylation. Spatiotemporal representation with differential models revealed dynamic alterations of DNA methylation in promoter regions, occurring from lower-CpG peripheral regions and extending to higher-CpG core regions. In summary, EBV infection exerted powerful pressure to induce global de novo DNA methylation in non-neoplastic cells within a month in a spatiotemporally well-ordered manner. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

KEYWORDS:

Epstein-Barr virus; de novo DNA methylation; gastric cancer; non-neoplastic epithelial cells

PMID:
28418084
DOI:
10.1002/path.4909
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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