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J Endod. 2017 Jul;43(7):1161-1165. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2017.01.041. Epub 2017 Apr 14.

Effect of Passive Ultrasonic Activation on Organic Tissue Dissolution from Simulated Grooves in Root Canals Using Sodium Hypochlorite with or without Surfactants and EDTA.

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Postgraduate Program in Endodontics, European University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
Faculty of Dental Sciences, School of Dentistry, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia. Electronic address:



The aim of this study was to evaluate the porcine palatal mucosa dissolution from artificial grooves using a final rinse with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with or without a surfactant or ultrasonic activation (PUI).


The root canals of 130 human maxillary central incisors were chemomechanically prepared and the teeth split. A standardized longitudinal intracanal groove was created in 1 of the root halves. One hundred thirty porcine palatal mucosa samples were collected, adapted in order to fit into the grooves, and weighed. The reassembled specimens were randomly divided in 3 experimental groups (n = 40) based on their irrigation protocol (ie, positive pressure [PP] and PUI during 15 [PUI-15] or 30 seconds [PUI-30]) and divided in subgroups according to the NaOCl preparation used: Vista 6% plain (Vista Dental Products, Racine, WI) or Chlor-XTRA (Vista Dental Products) (containing surfactant). An EDTA intermediate rinse was included. Palatal mucosa weights were measured after the assays. The intergroup weight changes were statistically analyzed.


Complete dissolution did not occur in any sample. Chlor-XTRA subgroups were associated with increased weight reduction compared with Vista 6% plain subgroups; however, the differences were significant (P < .05) only for PP and PUI-15. PUI-30 increased weight reduction compared with PP for both hypochlorites and PUI-15 using Vista 6% plain (P < .05). PUI-30 with Vista 6% plain performed significantly better than PP with Chlor-XTRA (P < .05).


The addition of a surfactant to NaOCl and/or PUI activation increased palatal mucosa dissolution within artificial grooves in the root canal of incisor teeth. PUI agitation was often able to compensate for the absence of surfactants.


Dissolution; sodium hypochlorite; surface tension; surfactant; ultrasonic

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