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Exp Ther Med. 2017 Apr;13(4):1249-1266. doi: 10.3892/etm.2017.4109. Epub 2017 Feb 8.

Anti-climacterium effects of pomegranate concentrated solutions in ovariectomized ddY mice.

Author information

1
The Medical Research Center for Globalization of Herbal Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 38610, Republic of Korea.
2
Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 38610, Republic of Korea.
3
Research Institute, Health-Love Co., Ltd., Anyang, Kyunggi-Do 13946, Republic of Korea.
4
Department of Histology and Anatomy, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 38610, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

In the present study, the complex anti-climacterium potential of standardized pomegranate concentrated solution (PCS) was investigated using bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) female ddY mice. Changes in body weight and gain during experimental periods, food consumption, serum estradiol levels, total body and abdominal fat densities, abdominal fat pads, and uterus weights were observed, along with the histopathology of abdominal fat pads and uterus for anti-obesity and estrogenic effects. In addition, liver weights, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, and histopathological inspections were performed to explore the hepato-protective effects. Serum total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein, and triglyceride (TG) levels were monitored for hypolipidemic effects with total body and femur mean bone mineral density (BMD), right femur wet, dry and ash weights, strength, serum osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP) contents, and histological and histomorphometrical analyses for anti-osteoporosis activity. As a result of OVX, notable increases in body weight and gains, food consumption, abdominal fat mass densities, weights of abdominal fat pads deposited in the abdominal cavity, and serum AST, ALT, TC, LDL, TG, and osteocalcin levels were observed, along with decreases in the uterus, liver, and femur weights, mean total body and femur BMD, femur strength, serum bALP, and estradiol levels. In addition, marked hypertrophic alterations in adipocytes located in the deposited abdominal fat pads, liver steatosis, uterine disused atrophic changes, and decreases in bone mass and structures of the femur were also observed in OVX control mice with significant increases in bone resorption markers based on histopathological and histomorphometrical analysis. However, these estrogen-deficient climacterium symptoms were significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01) inhibited after 84 days of continuous treatment with estradiol and PCS (1, 2 and 4 ml/kg), respectively. The present results suggested that PCS was able to effectively inhibit or refine the climacterium symptoms, including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and osteoporosis, induced by OVX in ddY mice.

KEYWORDS:

anti-climacterium; ddY mice; ovariectomy; pomegranate concentrated solution

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