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Adv Funct Mater. 2016 Oct 25;26(40):7281-7290. doi: 10.1002/adfm.201603146. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Ferromagnetic, folded electrode composite as a soft interface to the skin for long-term electrophysiological recording.

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Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.
Department of NanoEngineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.
Department of Engineering Mechanics, Center for Mechanics and Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA.
School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 61005, Republic of Korea.
Department of Material Science and Engineering, Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791, Republic of Korea.
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA.
MC10 Inc., Cambridge, MA 02140, USA.


This paper introduces a class of ferromagnetic, folded, soft composite material for skin-interfaced electrodes with releasable interfaces to stretchable, wireless electronic measurement systems. These electrodes establish intimate, adhesive contacts to the skin, in dimensionally stable formats compatible with multiple days of continuous operation, with several key advantages over conventional hydrogel based alternatives. The reported studies focus on aspects ranging from ferromagnetic and mechanical behavior of the materials systems, to electrical properties associated with their skin interface, to system-level integration for advanced electrophysiological monitoring applications. The work combines experimental measurement and theoretical modeling to establish the key design considerations. These concepts have potential uses across a diverse set of skin-integrated electronic technologies.


composite; dry electrodes; electrophysiology; equivalent circuit model; ferromagnetism; finite element method; folded electrode; impedance; stretchable electronics

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