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Kidney Int. 2017 Sep;92(3):751-756. doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2017.02.021. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

Cardiac surgery in patients with congenital heart disease is associated with acute kidney injury and the risk of chronic kidney disease.

Author information

1
Heart Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. Electronic address: nicolas.madsen@cchmc.org.
2
Heart Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA; Center for Acute Care Nephrology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
3
Department of Clinical Epidemiology, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark.

Abstract

Cardiac surgery associated-acute kidney injury (CS-AKI) occurs in 30-50% of patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease. Here we determine if CS-AKI is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with congenital heart disease. Using Danish regional population-based registries, our cohort study included patients with congenital heart disease born between 1990-2010 with first cardiac surgery between 2005 and 2010 (under 15 years of age). Utilizing in- and out-patient laboratory serum creatinine data, we identified individuals fulfilling KDIGO stages of AKI within 5 days of cardiac surgery. A unique personal identifier enabled unambiguous data linkage and virtually complete follow-up. The cumulative incidences of CKD stages 2-5 according to presence of CS-AKI were computed utilizing serum creatinine values and Pottel's formula. Using Cox regression, the corresponding hazard ratios were computed, adjusting for sex, age at first cardiac surgery, calendar period of surgery, and congenital heart disease severity. Of 382 patients with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery, 127 experienced CS-AKI within 5 days of surgery. Median follow-up was 4.9 years. The five-year cumulative incidence of CKD for patients with CS-AKI was 12% (95% confidence interval 7%-20%), significantly higher than the 3% (1%-5%) for those without CS-AKI with a significant adjusted hazard ratio of 3.8 (1.4-10.4). Thus, CS-AKI in patients with congenital heart disease is common and is associated with an increased risk for CKD.

KEYWORDS:

acute kidney injury; cardiovascular disease; chronic kidney disease

PMID:
28412020
DOI:
10.1016/j.kint.2017.02.021
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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