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Biomed J. 2017 Feb;40(1):9-22. doi: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.12.004. Epub 2017 Mar 22.

From Christian de Duve to Yoshinori Ohsumi: More to autophagy than just dining at home.

Author information

1
Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. Electronic address: Margaret.Harnett@glasgow.ac.uk.
2
Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
3
Inserm U1016, CNRS UMR8104, Cochin Institute, Paris, France; The laboratory of Comparative Cell Biology of Apicomplexa, Medical Faculty of Paris-Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris City, France.
4
DIMNP, UMR CNRS 5235, Montpellier University, Place Eugène Bataillon, Building 24, CC Montpellier, France.
5
Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
6
Inserm U1016, CNRS UMR8104, Cochin Institute, Paris, France; The laboratory of Comparative Cell Biology of Apicomplexa, Medical Faculty of Paris-Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris City, France. Electronic address: gordon.langsley@inserm.fr.

Abstract

Christian de Duve first coined the expression "autophagy" during his seminal work on the discovery of lysosomes, which led to him being awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974. The term was adopted to distinguish degradation of intracellular components from the uptake and degradation of extracellular substances that he called "heterophagy". Studies until the 1990s were largely observational/morphological-based until in 1993 Yoshinori Oshumi described a genetic screen in yeast undergoing nitrogen deprivation that led to the isolation of autophagy-defective mutants now better known as ATG (AuTophaGy-related) genes. The screen identified mutants that fell into 15 complementation groups implying that at least 15 genes were involved in the regulation of autophagy in yeast undergoing nutrient deprivation, but today, 41 yeast ATG genes have been described and many (though not all) have orthologues in humans. Attempts to identify the genetic basis of autophagy led to an explosion in its research and it's not surprising that in 2016 Yoshinori Oshumi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Our aim here is not to exhaustively review the ever-expanding autophagy literature (>60 papers per week), but to celebrate Yoshinori Oshumi's Nobel Prize by highlighting just a few aspects that are not normally extensively covered. In an accompanying mini-review we address the role of autophagy in early-diverging eukaryote parasites that like yeast, lack lysosomes and so use a digestive vacuole to degrade autophagosome cargo and also discuss how parasitized host cells react to infection by subverting regulation of autophagy.

KEYWORDS:

Autophagy; Infection; Inflammation; JNK; cAMP-PKA

PMID:
28411887
PMCID:
PMC6138802
DOI:
10.1016/j.bj.2016.12.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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