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Environ Res. 2017 Jul;156:420-425. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.04.004. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

In utero exposure to atrazine analytes and early menarche in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Cohort.

Author information

1
Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, MS F-60, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA; College of Public Health, University of Georgia, 105 Spear Rd, Athens, GA 30602, USA. Electronic address: fos0@cdc.gov.
2
Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, MS F-60, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.
3
College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, P O Box 70259, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA.
4
Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
5
Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, MS F-60, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA; Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
6
Department of Public Health Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Cannon Street Suite 303, MSC 835, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.
7
NIHR CLAHRC West, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Level 9, Whitefriars, Lewins Mead, Bristol BS1 2NT, United Kingdom.
8
Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, MS F-60, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA; College of Public Health, University of Georgia, 105 Spear Rd, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Evidence from experimental studies suggests that atrazine and its analytes alter the timing of puberty in laboratory animals. Such associations have not been investigated in humans.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the association between in utero exposure to atrazine analytes and earlier menarche attainment in a nested case-control study of the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

METHODS:

Cases were girls who reported menarche before 11.5 years while controls were girls who reported menarche at or after 11.5 years. Seven atrazine analyte concentrations were measured in maternal gestational urine samples (sample gestation week median (IQR): 12 (8-17)) during the period 1991-1992, for 174 cases and 195 controls using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We evaluated the study association using multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. We used multiple imputation to impute missing confounder data for 29% of the study participants.

RESULTS:

Diaminochlorotriazine (DACT) was the most frequently detected analyte (58%>limit of detection [LOD]) followed by desethyl atrazine (6%), desethyl atrazine mercapturate (3%), atrazine mercapturate (1%), hydroxyl atrazine (1%), atrazine (1%) and desisopropyl atrazine (0.5%). Because of low detection of other analytes, only DACT was included in the exposure-outcome analyses. The adjusted odds of early menarche for girls with DACT exposures‚Č•median was 1.13 (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]:0.82, 1.55) and exposure<median was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.42) compared to girls with exposure<LOD (reference). In the subset that excluded girls with missing data, the adjusted odds of early menarche for girls with DACT exposures‚Č•median was 1.86 (95% CI: 1.03, 3.38) and exposure<median was 1.26 (95% CI: 0.65, 2.24) compared to the reference.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study is the first to examine the association between timing of menarche and atrazine analytes. We found a weak, non-significant association between in-utero exposure to atrazine metabolite DACT and early menarche, though the association was significant in the subset of girls with complete confounder information. Further exploration of the role of these exposures in female reproduction in other cohorts is needed.

KEYWORDS:

ALSPAC; Atrazine; Endocrine disrupting compounds; Menarche; Puberty

PMID:
28410519
PMCID:
PMC5679269
DOI:
10.1016/j.envres.2017.04.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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