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Trop Med Int Health. 2017 Jun;22(6):765-775. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12881.

Uptake and performance of prevention of mother-to-child transmission and early infant diagnosis in pregnant HIV-infected women and their exposed infants at seven health centres in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Center for International Health, University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
Sarris Health Centre, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Kolfe Health Centre, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
German Centre for Infection Research, Munich, Germany.



To assess the uptake of WHO-recommended PMTCT procedures in Ethiopia's health services.


Prospective observational study of HIV-positive pregnant mothers and their newborns attending PMTCT services at seven health centres in Addis Ababa. Women were recruited during antenatal care and followed up with their newborns at delivery, Day 6 and Week 6 post-partum. Retention to PMCTC procedures, self-reported antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence and HIV infant outcome were assessed. Turnaround times of HIV early infant diagnosis (EID) procedures were extracted from health registers.


Of 494 women enrolled, 4.9% did not complete PMTCT procedures due to active denial or loss to follow-up. HIV was first diagnosed in 223 (45.1%) and ART initiated in 321 (65.0%) women during pregnancy. ART was initiated in a median of 1.3 weeks (IQR 0-4.3) after HIV diagnosis. Poor self-reported treatment adherence was higher post-partum than during pregnancy (12.5% vs. 7.0%, P = 0.002) and significantly associated with divorced/separated marital status (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.8), low family income (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.1), low CD4 count (RR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-3.0) and ART initiation during delivery (RR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.6). Of 435 infants born alive, 98.6% received nevirapine prophylaxis. The mother-to-child HIV transmission rate was 0.7% after a median of 6.7 weeks (IQR 6.4-10.4), but EID results were received for only 46.6% within 3 months of birth.


High retention in PMTCT services, triple maternal ART and high infant nevirapine prophylaxis coverage were associated with low mother-to-child HIV transmission. Declining post-partum ART adherence and challenges of EID linkage require attention.


PMTCT ; PTME ; PTV ; VIH ; Ethiopia; Ethiopie; Etiopía; HIV early infant diagnosis; adherencia al tratamiento antirretroviral; adhésion au traitement antirétroviral; antiretroviral treatment adherence; diagnostic précoce du VIH chez le nourrissson; diagnóstico temprano del VIH infantil; mother-to-child HIV transmission rate; tasa de transmisión del VIH madre-hijo; taux de transmission mère-enfant du VIH

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