Send to

Choose Destination
J Oral Rehabil. 2017 Jul;44(7):500-510. doi: 10.1111/joor.12515. Epub 2017 May 15.

Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and construct validity of the Tampa scale for kinesiophobia for temporomandibular disorders (TSK/TMD-Br) into Brazilian Portuguese.

Author information

Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation and Functional Performance at Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine, University of São Paulo-USP, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.
Department of Restorative Dentistry at Ribeirão Preto Dental School (FORP), University of São Paulo-USP, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.
Physical Therapist, Department of Oral Kinesiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Locomotor Apparatus Rehabilitation at Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine, University of São Paulo-USP, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.
Department of Neuroscience and Science of Behavior at Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine, University of São Paulo-USP, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.


Fear of movement (kinesiophobia) seems to play an important role in the development of chronic pain. However, for temporomandibular disorders (TMD), there is a scarcity of studies about this topic. The Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia for TMD (TSK/TMD) is the most widely used instrument to measure fear of movement and it is not available in Brazilian Portuguese. The purpose of this study was to culturally adapt the TSK/TMD to Brazilian Portuguese and to assess its psychometric properties regarding internal consistency, reliability, and construct and structural validity. A total of 100 female patients with chronic TMD participated in the validation process of the TSK/TMD-Br. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used for statistical analysis of reliability (test-retest), Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency, Spearman's rank correlation for construct validity and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for structural validity. CFA endorsed the pre-specified model with two domains and 12-items (Activity Avoidance - AA/Somatic Focus - SF) and all items obtained a loading factor greater than 0·4. Acceptable levels of reliability were found (ICC > 0·75) for all questions and domains of the TSK/TMD-Br. For internal consistency, Cronbach's α of 0·78 for both domains were found. Moderate correlations (0·40 < r < 0.60) were observed for 84% of the analyses conducted between TSK/TMD-Br scores versus catastrophising, depression and jaw functional limitation. TSK/TMD-Br 12 items and two-factor demonstrated sound psychometric properties (transcultural validity, reliability, internal consistency and structural validity). In such a way, the instrument can be used in clinical settings and for research purposes.


kinesiophobia; reliability; surveys and questionnaires; temporomandibular disorders; validation

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center