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Nutrients. 2017 Apr 13;9(4). pii: E380. doi: 10.3390/nu9040380.

Associations of Dietary Glucose, Fructose, and Sucrose with β-Cell Function, Insulin Sensitivity, and Type 2 Diabetes in the Maastricht Study.

Biggelaar LJ1,2, Eussen SJ3,4,5, Sep SJ6,7, Mari A8, Ferrannini E9, Dongen MC10,11, Denissen KF12,13, Wijckmans NE14,15, Schram MT16,17,18, Kallen CJ19,20, Koster A21,22, Schaper N23,24,25, Henry RM26,27,28, Stehouwer CD29,30, Dagnelie PC31,32,33.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. louise.denbiggelaar@maastrichtuniversity.nl.
2
Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. louise.denbiggelaar@maastrichtuniversity.nl.
3
Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. simone.eussen@maastrichtuniversity.nl.
4
Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. simone.eussen@maastrichtuniversity.nl.
5
Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI), Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. simone.eussen@maastrichtuniversity.nl.
6
Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. mcjm.vandongen@maastrichtuniversity.nl.
7
Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. mcjm.vandongen@maastrichtuniversity.nl.
8
C N R Institute of Neuroscience, Padova 56124, Italy. karlijn.denissen@maastrichtuniversity.nl.
9
C N R Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa 56124, Italy. nicole.wijckmans@maastrichtuniversity.nl.
10
Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. dagnelie@maastrichtuniversity.nl.
11
Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI), Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. dagnelie@maastrichtuniversity.nl.
12
Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. s.sep@adelante-zorggroep.nl.
13
Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI), Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. s.sep@adelante-zorggroep.nl.
14
Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. m.schram@mumc.nl.
15
Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI), Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. m.schram@mumc.nl.
16
Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. c.vanderkallen@maastrichtuniversity.nl.
17
Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. c.vanderkallen@maastrichtuniversity.nl.
18
Heart and Vascular Centre, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. c.vanderkallen@maastrichtuniversity.nl.
19
Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. n.schaper@mumc.nl.
20
Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. n.schaper@mumc.nl.
21
Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI), Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. rma.henry@mumc.nl.
22
Department of Social Medicine, Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. rma.henry@mumc.nl.
23
Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. cda.stehouwer@mumc.nl.
24
Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI), Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. cda.stehouwer@mumc.nl.
25
Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. cda.stehouwer@mumc.nl.
26
Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. annemarie.koster@mumc.nl.
27
Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. annemarie.koster@mumc.nl.
28
Heart and Vascular Centre, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. annemarie.koster@mumc.nl.
29
Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. andrea.mari@cnr.it.
30
Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. andrea.mari@cnr.it.
31
Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. ferrannini@ifc.cnr.it.
32
Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. ferrannini@ifc.cnr.it.
33
Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI), Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands. ferrannini@ifc.cnr.it.

Abstract

The associations of glucose, fructose, and sucrose intake with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been inconsistent. Furthermore, there is a lack of studies focusing on early markers of T2DM that provide insight into the process of T2DM progression: impaired pancreatic β-cell function (BCF) and insulin sensitivity. This study evaluated associations cross-sectionally in a population-based cohort consisting of 2818 individuals (mean ± SD age 59.7 ± 8.18, 49.5% male, n = 120 newly diagnosed T2DM). Glucose, fructose, and sucrose intake were assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Glucose metabolism status, insulin sensitivity, and BCF were measured by a seven-points oral glucose tolerance test. Linear regression analysis revealed a positive association of glucose intake with insulin sensitivity in the fully adjusted model (standardized beta (95% CI) 0.07 (0.05, 0.14) SD for ≥23 g vs. <10 g of glucose). Fructose and sucrose intake were not associated with insulin sensitivity after full adjustments. In addition, no associations of dietary glucose, fructose, and sucrose with BCF were detected. In conclusion, higher intake of glucose, not fructose and sucrose, was associated with higher insulin sensitivity, independent of dietary fibre. No convincing evidence was found for associations of dietary glucose, fructose, and sucrose with BCF in this middle-aged population.

KEYWORDS:

beta-cell function; diet; fructose; glucose; insulin sensitivity; prediabetes; sucrose; type 2 diabetes

PMID:
28406435
PMCID:
PMC5409719
DOI:
10.3390/nu9040380
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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