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Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Nov;1(3):226-237. doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(16)30106-6. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

Type 3c (pancreatogenic) diabetes mellitus secondary to chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

Author information

1
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address: philip.hart@osumc.edu.
2
Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Schulze Diabetes Institute, University of Minnesota Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
3
Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
4
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, The Ohio State University, Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA.
5
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA.
6
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
7
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
8
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
9
Departments of Medicine, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana University Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, IN, USA; Pancreatic Cancer Signature Center, Indiana University Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
10
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
11
Department of Veterans Affairs, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
12
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh and UPMC Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh and UPMC Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
13
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases defined by persistent hyperglycaemia. Type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent form, is characterised initially by impaired insulin sensitivity and subsequently by an inadequate compensatory insulin response. Diabetes can also develop as a direct consequence of other diseases, including diseases of the exocrine pancreas. Historically, diabetes due to diseases of the exocrine pancreas was described as pancreatogenic or pancreatogenous diabetes mellitus, but recent literature refers to it as type 3c diabetes. It is important to note that type 3c diabetes is not a single entity; it occurs because of a variety of exocrine pancreatic diseases with varying mechanisms of hyperglycaemia. The most commonly identified causes of type 3c diabetes are chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, haemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, and previous pancreatic surgery. In this Review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical relevance of type 3c diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and highlight several important knowledge gaps.

PMID:
28404095
PMCID:
PMC5495015
DOI:
10.1016/S2468-1253(16)30106-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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