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BMC Cancer. 2017 Apr 12;17(1):257. doi: 10.1186/s12885-017-3234-4.

Infections and cancer: the "fifty shades of immunity" hypothesis.

Author information

1
CREEC, 911 Avenue Agropolis, BP 64501, 34394, Montpellier Cedex 5, France. camille.jacqueline@ird.fr.
2
MIVEGEC, UMR IRD/CNRS/UM 5290, 911 Avenue Agropolis, BP 64501, 34394, Montpellier Cedex 5, France. camille.jacqueline@ird.fr.
3
Unité d'Evolution, Ecologie et Paléontologie (EEP) Université de Lille 1 CNRS UMR 8198, groupe d'Ecoimmunologie des Annélides, 59655, Villeneuve-d'Ascqd'Ascq, France.
4
BiogéoSciences, CNRS UMR 6282, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000, Dijon, France.
5
Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Vic, Australia.
6
Laboratoire de Pathologie Oncologie Digestive, Institut Pasteur 1, Place Abou Kacem Ez-Zahraoui- B.P, 120, Casablanca, Morocco.
7
CREEC, 911 Avenue Agropolis, BP 64501, 34394, Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
8
MIVEGEC, UMR IRD/CNRS/UM 5290, 911 Avenue Agropolis, BP 64501, 34394, Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
9
Department of Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, 40292, USA.
10
International Center for Mathematical and Computational Modeling of Complex Systems (UMI IRD/UPMC UMMISCO), 32 Avenue Henri Varagnat, 93143, Bondy Cedex, France.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Since the beginning of the twentieth century, infection has emerged as a fundamental aspect of cancer causation with a growing number of pathogens recognized as oncogenic. Meanwhile, oncolytic viruses have also attracted considerable interest as possible agents of tumor destruction.

DISCUSSION:

Lost in the dichotomy between oncogenic and oncolytic agents, the indirect influence of infectious organisms on carcinogenesis has been largely unexplored. We describe the various ways - from functional aspects to evolutionary considerations such as modernity mismatches - by which infectious organisms could interfere with oncogenic processes through immunity. Finally, we discuss how acknowledging these interactions might impact public health approaches and suggest new guidelines for therapeutic and preventive strategies both at individual and population levels. Infectious organisms, that are not oncogenic neither oncolytic, may play a significant role in carcinogenesis, suggesting the need to increase our knowledge about immune interactions between infections and cancer.

KEYWORDS:

Cancer; Evolution; Immunity; Infection; Personal history of infection

PMID:
28403812
PMCID:
PMC5389015
DOI:
10.1186/s12885-017-3234-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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