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Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2017 Oct;24(5):303-310. doi: 10.1080/09286586.2017.1290258. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Urban Slums: The Aditya Jyot Diabetic Retinopathy in Urban Mumbai Slums Study-Report 2.

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a Aditya Jyot Foundation for Twinkling Little Eyes , Mumbai , Maharashtra , India.
b Aditya Jyot Eye Hospital , Mumbai , Maharashtra , India.
c Department of Educational Development & Research, Maastricht University , Maastricht , the Netherlands.
d Department of Health , Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University , Maastricht , the Netherlands.
e Essentia Institute of Rural Health , Duluth , MN , USA.



The aims of the study were to estimate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and enumerate history-based risk factors in the urban slums of Western India.


The population-based study was conducted in seven wards of Mumbai urban slums, where we screened 6569 subjects of ≥ 40 years age, with a response rate of 98.4%, for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) based on American Diabetes Association criteria. All subjects with T2DM underwent dilated 30° seven-field stereo-fundus-photography for DR severity grading based on modified Airlie House classification. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the correlation of DR with the history-based risk factors.


The prevalence of DR in the general population of Mumbai urban slums was 1.41% (95% CI 0.59-2.23) and in the T2DM population it was 15.37% (95% CI 8.87-21.87). The positive associations with DR were the longer duration of DM (≥ 11 years: OR, 12.77; 95% CI 2.93-55.61) and male gender (OR, 2.05; 95% CI 1.08-3.89); increasing severity of retinopathy was also significantly associated with longer duration of DM (p < 0.001). However, history of hypertension, family history of DM, consanguineous marriage and migration status were not associated with DR in the study population.


The prevalence of DR in the general population and T2DM subjects were 1.41% and 15.37% respectively in Mumbai urban slums. Duration of DM and male gender were significantly associated with DR. The slums in Western India show the trends of urban lifestyle influences similar to the rest of urban India.


Diabetic retinopathy; prevalence; risk factors; type 2 diabetes mellitus; urban slums

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