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J Genet Psychol. 2017 May-Jun;178(3):147-164. doi: 10.1080/00221325.2017.1295222. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

Developing the Cyber Victimization Experiences and Cyberbullying Behaviors Scales.

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a Department of Psychology , Nottingham Trent University , Nottingham , United Kingdom.


The reported prevalence rates of cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors vary. Part of this variation is likely due to the diverse definitions and operationalizations of the constructs adopted in previous research and the lack of psychometrically robust measures. Through 2 studies, the authors developed (Study 1) and evaluated (Study 2) the cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors scales. Participants in Study 1 were 393 (122 boys, 171 girls) and in Study 2 were 345 (153 boys, 192 girls) 11-15-year-olds who completed measures of cyber victimization experiences, cyberbullying behaviors, face-to-face victimization experiences, face-to-face bullying behaviors, and social desirability. The 3-factor cyber victimization experiences scale comprised threat, shared images, and personal attack. The 3-factor cyberbullying behaviors scale comprised sharing images, gossip, and personal attack. Both scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and convergent validity.


cyber victimization; cyberbullying; face-to-face bullying; face-to-face victimization; scale development; social desirability

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