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Br J Radiol. 2017 Jun;90(1074):20160804. doi: 10.1259/bjr.20160804. Epub 2017 May 25.

Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: analysis of complications in a single centre over 20 years.

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1 Interventional Ultrasound Unit, D Cotugno Hospital, Naples, Italy.
2 Interventional Ultrasound Unit, Tortorella Clinical Institute, Salerno, Italy.



To report on our 20 years' experience on complications after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis.


From 1994 to 2014, 1787 RFA procedures were performed percutaneously in 1162 patients with cirrhosis (852 Child A and 310 Child B) with HCC nodules (1.2-7 cm), prothrombin time >50%, platelet count of 50.000 mm3 and total bilirubin ranging from 0.80 to 4.5 mg dl-1. In 67 patients, RFA was performed on both intraparenchymal HCC nodule and tumour thrombus extended in the main portal vein and/or its branches.


Four patients (0.3%) died after RFA. 39 patients (3.2%) changed in Child's class: 26 out of 28 Child A patients with cirrhosis changed to Child B and 2 changed to Child C class; 11 Child B patients changed to Child C class. On multivariate analysis, the total bilirubin pre-RFA was the only independent risk factor for impairment of liver function and death. Complications were hemoperitoneum, abscess and intrahepatic haematoma.


RFA of HCC in patients with cirrhosis is safe, even in case of invasion of the portal venous system. Functional liver reserve should be strictly monitored, mainly when pre-RFA total bilirubin value is >2.5 mg dl-1. The study was approved by our institutional review board. Advances in knowledge: The total bilirubin value >2.5 mg dl-1 represents the main marker of functional liver reserve that predicts decompensation of liver cirrhosis in patients undergoing RFA for HCC.

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