Format

Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS Biol. 2017 Apr 11;15(4):e2001627. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2001627. eCollection 2017 Apr.

Convergent evolution of SWS2 opsin facilitates adaptive radiation of threespine stickleback into different light environments.

Author information

1
Department of Biology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
2
Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford, California, United States of America.
3
Friedrich Miescher Laboratory of the Max Planck Society, Tübingen, Germany.
4
Earlham Institute and University of East Anglia, Department of Biological Sciences, Norwich, United Kingdom.

Abstract

Repeated adaptation to a new environment often leads to convergent phenotypic changes whose underlying genetic mechanisms are rarely known. Here, we study adaptation of color vision in threespine stickleback during the repeated postglacial colonization of clearwater and blackwater lakes in the Haida Gwaii archipelago. We use whole genomes from 16 clearwater and 12 blackwater populations, and a selection experiment, in which stickleback were transplanted from a blackwater lake into an uninhabited clearwater pond and resampled after 19 y to test for selection on cone opsin genes. Patterns of haplotype homozygosity, genetic diversity, site frequency spectra, and allele-frequency change support a selective sweep centered on the adjacent blue- and red-light sensitive opsins SWS2 and LWS. The haplotype under selection carries seven amino acid changes in SWS2, including two changes known to cause a red-shift in light absorption, and is favored in blackwater lakes but disfavored in the clearwater habitat of the transplant population. Remarkably, the same red-shifting amino acid changes occurred after the duplication of SWS2 198 million years ago, in the ancestor of most spiny-rayed fish. Two distantly related fish species, bluefin killifish and black bream, express these old paralogs divergently in black- and clearwater habitats, while sticklebacks lost one paralog. Our study thus shows that convergent adaptation to the same environment can involve the same genetic changes on very different evolutionary time scales by reevolving lost mutations and reusing them repeatedly from standing genetic variation.

PMID:
28399148
PMCID:
PMC5388470
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pbio.2001627
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center