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Sci Rep. 2017 Apr 11;7:46130. doi: 10.1038/srep46130.

Intestinal microbiome in children with severe and complicated acute viral gastroenteritis.

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Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
Department of Biotechnology, Min-Chuan University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Chang Gung University College of Engineering, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
Molecular Infectious Disease Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan.


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiota of children with severe or complicated acute viral gastroenteritis (AGE). To that end, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology was used to sequence the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene in 20 hospitalized pediatric patients with severe or complicated AGE and a further 20 otherwise healthy children; the fecal microbiome was then assessed. Comparative metagenomics data were analyzed by a Wilcoxon rank-sum test and hierarchical clustering analysis of bacterial reads. The statistical analyses showed a significantly decreased Shannon diversity index (entropy score) of the intestinal microbiota in patients with severe AGE compared with normal controls (P = 0.017) and patients with mild-to-moderate AGE (P = 0.011). The intestinal microbiota score of the 5 patients with rotavirus AGE was significantly lower than that of those with norovirus infection (P = 0.048). Greater richness in Campylobacteraceae (P = 0.0003), Neisseriaceae (P = 0.0115), Methylobacteriaceae (P = 0.0004), Sphingomonadaceae (P = 0.0221), and Enterobacteriaceae (P = 0.0451) was found in patients with complicated AGE compared with normal controls. The data suggest a significant reduction in intestinal microbial diversity in patients with severe AGE, particularly those with rotavirus infection.

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