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J Sports Sci. 2018 Feb;36(4):365-377. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2017.1307440. Epub 2017 Apr 10.

Swimming and peak bone mineral density: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Author information

1
a Faculty of Health and Sport Science (FCSD), Department of Physiatry and Nursing , Universidad de Zaragoza , Huesca , Spain.
2
b GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group , Zaragoza , Spain.
3
c Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisología de la Obesidad y Nutrición , Madrid , Spain.
4
d redIAPP Reseach Network , Zaragoza , Spain.
5
e Centro Universitario de la Defensa , Zaragoza , Spain.
6
f Miguel Servet University Hospital , Zaragoza , Spain.
7
g Faculty of Health Science (FCS) , Universidad de Zaragoza , Zaragoza , Spain.

Abstract

This meta-analysis aims to determine the effects of regular swimming on bone mineral density (BMD) in young adults (18-30 years). A systematic search was performed in Pubmed, SPORTDiscus and the Cochrane Library from the earliest possible year to March 2016. Swimmers were compared to non-athletic controls (CG) and to high-impact athletes (HIGH). Effect sizes with the Hedges g in random effects models were developed. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analyses. Swimmers presented similar BMD values to CG in whole-body (g = -0.20; P = 0.251), femoral neck (g = -0.05; P = 0.818) and lumbar spine (g = 0.18; P = 0.492); and lower BMD in the whole-body (g = -1.21; P < 0.001), femoral neck (g = -1.51; P < 0.001) and lumbar spine (g = -0.84; P = 0.017) than the HIGH. For the whole-body differences, the higher the latitude the smaller the differences between swimmers and HIGH (B = 0.10; P = 0.001). For the femoral neck differences, age also seemed to reduce the differences between groups (B = 0.19; P = 0.020). Young adult swimmers present similar BMD values than CG and lower values than HIGH.

KEYWORDS:

Sport; aquatic; athletics; bone mass; swimmers

PMID:
28394711
DOI:
10.1080/02640414.2017.1307440
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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