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Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2017 May;28(2):215-225. doi: 10.1016/j.pmr.2016.12.001. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Pathophysiology of Traumatic Brain Injury.

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Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1223 East Marshall Street, Richmond, VA 23298, USA. Electronic address:


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become the signature injury of the military conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan and also has a high rate of occurrence in civilian populations in the United States. Although the effects of a moderate to severe brain injury have been investigated for decades, the chronic effects of single and repetitive mild TBI are just beginning to be investigated. Data suggest that the different types and severities of TBI have unique long-term outcomes and thus may represent different types of diseases. Therefore, this review outlines the causes, incidence, symptoms, and pathophysiology of mild, moderate, and severe TBI.


Blast TBI; Concussion; Mild TBI; Pathophysiology; Symptoms; TBI; Traumatic brain injury

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