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Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2017 Nov 1;7(11). pii: a029793. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a029793.

Skeletal Muscle as an Endocrine Organ: The Role of Myokines in Exercise Adaptations.

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Division of Pathobiochemistry and Clinical Chemistry, Department of Internal Medicine IV, University Hospital Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
Institute for Diabetes Research and Metabolic Diseases of the Helmholtz Zentrum München at the University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), 85764 München-Neuherberg, Germany.


Exercise stimulates the release of proteins with autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine functions produced in skeletal muscle, termed myokines. Based on the current state of knowledge, the major physiological function of myokines is to protect the functionality and to enhance the exercise capacity of skeletal muscle. Myokines control adaptive processes in skeletal muscle by acting as paracrine regulators of fuel oxidation, hypertrophy, angiogenesis, inflammatory processes, and regulation of the extracellular matrix. Endocrine functions attributed to myokines are involved in body weight regulation, low-grade inflammation, insulin sensitivity, suppression of tumor growth, and improvement of cognitive function. Muscle-derived regulatory RNAs and metabolites, as well as the design of modified myokines, are promising novel directions for treatment of chronic diseases.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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