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Acta Pharm Sin B. 2017 Mar;7(2):241-248. doi: 10.1016/j.apsb.2016.12.006. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

Regulation of drug metabolism and toxicity by multiple factors of genetics, epigenetics, lncRNAs, gut microbiota, and diseases: a meeting report of the 21st International Symposium on Microsomes and Drug Oxidations (MDO).

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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.
Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart, Germany; Eberhard Karls University, Tuebingen, Germany.
Center of Pharmacogenomics and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.
Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology and the George William Hooper Research Foundation, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
Department of Biology and Bioinformatics Program, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.


Variations in drug metabolism may alter drug efficacy and cause toxicity; better understanding of the mechanisms and risks shall help to practice precision medicine. At the 21st International Symposium on Microsomes and Drug Oxidations held in Davis, California, USA, in October 2-6, 2016, a number of speakers reported some new findings and ongoing studies on the regulation mechanisms behind variable drug metabolism and toxicity, and discussed potential implications to personalized medications. A considerably insightful overview was provided on genetic and epigenetic regulation of gene expression involved in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) and drug response. Altered drug metabolism and disposition as well as molecular mechanisms among diseased and special populations were presented. In addition, the roles of gut microbiota in drug metabolism and toxicology as well as long non-coding RNAs in liver functions and diseases were discussed. These findings may offer new insights into improved understanding of ADME regulatory mechanisms and advance drug metabolism research.


Disease; Drug metabolism and toxicity; Epigenetics; Genetics; Gut microbiota; Long non-coding RNAs; Personalized medication

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