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Health Policy Plan. 2017 Jul 1;32(6):869-881. doi: 10.1093/heapol/czx013.

Cost-effectiveness analysis and mortality impact estimation of scaling-up pregnancy test kits in Madagascar, Ethiopia and Malawi.

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Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, CERDI, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France.
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, Bixby Center for Global Reproductive Health, 3333 California Street, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.


Cost-effective, innovative approaches are needed to accelerate progress towards ending preventable infant, child and maternal mortality. To inform policy decisions, we conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of adding urine pregnancy test kits to the maternal and reproductive services package offered at the community level in Madagascar, Ethiopia and Malawi. We used a decision tree model to compare the intervention with the status quo for each country. We also completed single factor sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulations with 10 000 iterations to generate the probability distribution of the estimates and uncertainty limits. Among a hypothetical cohort of 100 000 women of reproductive age, we estimate that over a 1-year period, the intervention would save 26, 35 and 48 lives in Madagascar, Ethiopia, and Malawi, respectively. The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) for the cost per life saved varies by country: $2311 [95% Uncertainty Interval (UI): $1699; $3454] in Madagascar; $2969 [UI: $2260; $5041] in Ethiopia and $1228 [UI: $918; $1777] in Malawi. This equates to an average cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted of $36.28, $47.95 and $21.92, respectively. Based on WHO criteria and a comparison with other maternal, newborn, and child health interventions, we conclude that the addition of urine pregnancy tests to an existing community health worker maternal and reproductive services package is highly cost-effective in all three countries. To optimize uptake of family planning and antenatal care services and, in turn, accelerate the reduction of mortality and DALYs, decision makers and program planners should consider adding urine pregnancy tests to the community-level package of services.


Community health; contraception; cost-effectiveness analysis; developing countries; disability-adjusted life years; health economics; infant mortality; maternal mortality; reproductive health; safe motherhood

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