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New Phytol. 2017 Jun;214(4):1657-1672. doi: 10.1111/nph.14542. Epub 2017 Apr 7.

A new proteinaceous pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) identified in Ascomycete fungi induces cell death in Solanaceae.

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Cell and Molecular Sciences, James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, DD2 5DA, UK.
Plant Biology and Crop Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, AL5 2JQ, UK.
Division of Plant Sciences, University of Dundee (at JHI), Invergowrie, Dundee, DD2 5DA, UK.


Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are detected by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which gives rise to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). We characterized a novel fungal PAMP, Cell Death Inducing 1 (RcCDI1), identified in the Rhynchosporium commune transcriptome sampled at an early stage of barley (Hordeum vulgare) infection. The ability of RcCDI1 and its homologues from different fungal species to induce cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana was tested following agroinfiltration or infiltration of recombinant proteins produced by Pichia pastoris. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and transient expression of Phytophthora infestans effectors PiAVR3a and PexRD2 were used to assess the involvement of known components of PTI in N. benthamiana responses to RcCDI1. RcCDI1 was highly upregulated early during barley colonization with R. commune. RcCDI1 and its homologues from different fungal species, including Zymoseptoria tritici, Magnaporthe oryzae and Neurospora crassa, exhibited PAMP activity, inducing cell death in Solanaceae but not in other families of dicots or monocots. RcCDI1-triggered cell death was shown to require N. benthamiana Brassinosteroid insensitive 1-Associated Kinase 1 (NbBAK1), N. benthamiana suppressor of BIR1-1 (NbSOBIR1) and N. benthamiana SGT1 (NbSGT1), but was not suppressed by PiAVR3a or PexRD2. We report the identification of a novel Ascomycete PAMP, RcCDI1, recognized by Solanaceae but not by monocots, which activates cell death through a pathway that is distinct from that triggered by the oomycete PAMP INF1.


Rhynchosporium commune ; Ascomycete; Solanaceae; cell death; elicitor; fungal; pathogen; pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)

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